These nuclear test videos are used in stock footage, but there’s a disturbing story behind them. The 20,000 soldiers ordered to participate were told to walk toward the blast zone with no protective gear, and no understanding of the long-term health risks.
For decades, the Veterans Administration denied them healthcare coverage for leukemia and other cancers linked to the tests for two reasons: (1) many couldn’t prove they attended because records were lost in a fire and (2) their superiors did not hand out enough dosimeters to accurately track ionizing radiation exposure for each soldier.
They were also not given breathing protection, and the Department of Defense did not account for the radioactive dust breathed in by the soldiers (on the desert floor of the Nevada Test Site) despite there being a clear linkage in scientific literature by the 1940s.
Today, academic research has proven a link between the tests and rates of cancer, plus additional risks to children and grandchildren of the soldiers due to genetic changes from the exposure. Yet in the U.S., the only legislation to cover (some) healthcare costs, the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA), does not cover descendants.
“Atomic veterans,” as they are known, are also pushing for a medal for their service and a national holiday. But the Pentagon claims medals cannot be given because their risks taken were not in a combat setting. Likewise, the only “National Atomic Veterans Day” came on July 16th, 1983 and was not scheduled to repeat in annual fashion.
Sources in order of mention
DOD looking at increased leukemia rates in the 70s: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16293038.pdf
DTRA sponsored study in 2003 says radiation doses were underestimated, not all participants had dosimeters. https://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=10697
History of Nevada test site: https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/radiation/i131-report-and-appendix
Priscilla test 550 yards: https://www.dtra.mil/Portals/61/Documents/NTPR/1-Fact_Sheets/19_PLUMBBOB.pdf
George test 500 yards https://www.dtra.mil/Portals/61/Documents/NTPR/1-Fact_Sheets/12_TUMBLER-SNAPPER.pdf
All fact sheets mention psychological tests, but not physiological:
USAF to Congressmen, sent to AEC; not worried about exposure, says a thorough review would be expensive, take a lot of time, and would cause issues related to security classification when including necessary scientists to study: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16290586.pdf
AEC saying only a minority of soldiers exposed to above safe limits, but never explains how it’s even measured on a per soldier basis, since most didn’t have proper monitoring devices (film badges) on them https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16125896.pdf
1944 radioactivity and lung cancer https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-abstract/5/1/1/926152
ORNL accident and lung hazards 1948 https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6409985
Autopsies’ burden on lungs https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16290918.pdf
1970s, DOD and Army acknowledges CDC finding that leukemia rates for participants in Smokey test were way higher than population average: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16293038.pdf
Law journal: 99% of VA claims by early 80s were denied, a fire destroyed the records and made it difficult to prove service https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2702&context=hastings_law_journal
IOM says veterans in Nevada had: 50% higher risk of fatal leukemia; 20% higher risk of fatal prostate cancer; 160% higher risk of nasal cancer https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/1842621
RECA policies: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43956.pdf
Genetic changes detected as early as 1957, p942: https://repository.uchastings.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2702&context=hastings_law_journal
One veteran talks about his daughter died of rare cancer, son had rare disease, and granddaughter had disorder: https://www.stripes.com/news/special-reports/conspiracy-of-silence-veterans-exposed-to-atomic-tests-wage-final-fight-1.585789
UK study says descendants face higher risks of birth defects, miscarriage, stillbirths, congenital defects, infant mortality, cancer https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/miscarriages-and-congenital-conditions-in-offspring-of-veterans-of-the-british-nuclear-atmospheric-test-programme-2161-1165.1000172.php?aid=30829
US study (funded by VA) determined offspring couldn’t be studied https://www.nationalacademies.org/news/1995/07/health-study-of-atomic-veterans-families-not-feasible-study-says
Still to this day haven’t received a medal: https://americanhomefront.wunc.org/post/instead-medals-pentagon-offering-certificates-vets-who-were-exposed-radiation
Man’s wife has cancer, AEC memo seems more concerned with legal risks than health of woman: https://www.osti.gov/opennet/servlets/purl/16292214.pdf
Desert Rock 6 Creative Commons footage, via Jeff Quitney: https://vimeo.com/377579595
Reagan White House video, Creative Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ronald_Reagan%27s_Inaugural_Address,_January_20,_1981.webm
Desert Rock exercise footage, public domain: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:U.S._Army_-_Atom_Bomb_Effects.webm
Operation Crossroads/Pacific public domain footage: https://archive.org/details/Operatio1946